What Is Nutrient Enrichment?
- Evolution of the phosphorus balance in coral reefs
- The nutrient storage and growth of algae in the river
- The Effects of Macroalgae on Community Structure
- Food Fortification in Developing Countries
- The Impacts of Over-Enrichment on the US Coastline
- Modeling the periphyton growth and water quality impairment
- Eotrophication of shallow streams
- The Role of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Evolutionary Processes
- Shellfish farming: a new strategy for the removal and implementation of stratified sediment
- Enrichment and Behavior
Evolution of the phosphorus balance in coral reefs
Coral reef degradation is linked to N and P, and is also a threat to the coral reefs. Coral reefs are one of the most productive in the world, but they thrive in poor environments. Coral propagation is hampered by the growth of attached macroalgae, which is stimulated by slight enrichment of coral reefs.
There is periodic hypoxia on the reef. The Great Barrier Reef, the Caribbean, and Hawaii are examples of coral reefs being degraded. The availability of fixed N is thought to be limiting the productivity of the marine primary production.
Some N is made available through N fixation, but some is lost through denitrification, which is a biological process limited by trace nutrients and the concentration of oxygen. The inventory of fixed N in the ocean would be affected by differential changes in the two processes. The model of Vollenweider for the phosphorus is one of the first models of the mass balances that have a wide application.
The nutrient storage and growth of algae in the river
The nutrients can be temporarily stored in the river and estuaries but can be available again to grow more algae if the environment is not too bad.
The Effects of Macroalgae on Community Structure
Sometimes changes in community structure are not directly the result of enrichment, but are caused by other changes. Increased nitrogen can cause a change in the community of phytoplankton. Increased nitrogen can cause a change in the community structure by increasing productivity and decreasing dissolved organic carbon.
It is difficult to determine whether a change is direct or indirect. Tor applies to benthic or planktonic macroalgae that can cause major ecological impacts, such as the displacement of indigenous species, habitat alteration, and oxygen depletion. The causes and effects of macroalgal blooms are similar to those of harmful phytoplankton species.
The Hong Kong and Island Sea of Japan examples have been criticized because they could be biased by changes in the number of observers through time, and they are tabulations of water discolorations from algal blooms, rather than just toxic or harmful episodes. The data shows that coastal waters receiving industrial, agricultural, and domestic effluents, which are high in plant nutrients, do in fact experience a general increase in algal growth. Increased macroalgal cover on reefs leads to second-order ecological effects.
Food Fortification in Developing Countries
Fortification is the addition of micronutrients to a food that does not contain those compounds naturally, whereas enrichment is the increase of the natural contents of some micronutrients in the food. When a food has been partially or totally lost in its original levels, it can be restored by adding vitamins A and D to defatted milk to reproduce the vitamins in whole milk. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that are required by humans in very small amounts and should be obtained directly from the diet.
Food fortification uses fortificants to get the micronutrients from the chemical sources. For example, ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and NaFeEDTA are fortificants that increase the iron content in food. Fortificants are added to foods as part of the process of making them.
Food fortification is not new. Food fortification policies have evolved in the developed countries. In the 70 years since, the addition of vitamins to staple foods has been used to deal with micronutrient deficiencies in some countries that began with short-term policies.
The nations have been fortifying their widely consumed foods such as flour, salt, juices, margarine, milk, and sugar for decades, which has eliminated several of the vitamins that were missing. Fortification is less prevalent in developing countries because of the limited choice of vehicles. Milk, margarine, and infant formula are fat-based foods that are ideal for providing supplemental vitamins A and C.
The preferred foodstuff in the world is dried milk, which is convenient and cost-effective. A growing range of alternative food items are being used as carriers. There are advantages to using packaging during food storage.
The Impacts of Over-Enrichment on the US Coastline
All living things need to take in food, water, and other resources. The base of the food web is based on the ability of organisms to take in food and use the sun's energy to make new food. In yards, gardens, farms, and forests around the world, organisms take in carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements and use sunlight to produce the simple and complex organic molecule necessary for life.
To get federal approval of their coastal zone management programs, states must define a coastal boundary, designate critical areas of concern, and adopt enforceable policies. The US shoreline is managed by federal and state approved programs. The coastal marine environment is facing a growing problem of pollution from over-enrichment.
The most significant and common impacts of over-enrichment are included in this brief overview. The high levels of nutrients that can be considered will vary among systems. There is no accepted framework for classification coastal systems by their sensitivity.
Physical factors such as mixing, stratification, andflushing are important in determining how sensitive a site is. The scientists said that excessive loading of vitamins helps create an environment rich in prey and organic matter that both Pfiesteriand menhaden use as a food supply. When adequate numbers of fish are present, the likelihood of a toxic outbreak increases.
Excess nutrients are one of many factors involved in Pfiesteria outbreak. The roles of water temperature, stream hydraulics, and salinity are important. Some blooms are natural and are not known.
Modeling the periphyton growth and water quality impairment
Detailed information is required about the state of the N and P in the soil, as well as factors that affect the loss of the N and P from land to water, to model the likelihood of water quality impairment by periphyton growth. There are many models that can predict the concentration, load and yield of N and P at a regional or global scale. There are models that can predict concentrations at a global scale.
Eotrophication of shallow streams
Natural enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary, or slow- moving stream is called eotrophication. It is caused by the pollution of the surrounding land with plant nitrates and phosphates.
The Role of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Evolutionary Processes
Plants and animals need the right amount of vitamins and minerals in their food to survive. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the most important and abundant of the many kinds of vitamins. Nitrogen and phosphorus can be found in a variety of forms and can change as they move between the air, water, and soil.
Shellfish farming: a new strategy for the removal and implementation of stratified sediment
The scientists at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration used modeling tools to show that shellfish farming is more efficient than other strategies for removing and implementing nitrates. Documenting the water quality benefits of shellfish farming has increased the acceptance of the practice by both the regulators and the communities. In the case of the bay of Chesapeake, harvesting oyster tissue is an approved method, while in the case of the bay of Massachusetts, harvesting oysters and clams is part of the official plan.
Enrichment and Behavior
Animals can demonstrate their species-typical behavior, exercise control over their environment and improve their well-being by enrichment. Proper nutrition and veterinary care important to animal welfare. Something more meaningful, substantial, or rewarding is what enrichment makes.
Something improves with enrichment. Money, jewels, and gold are worth a lot. Something is enriched when it is more valuable.